Courts of Inquiry


What is a Court of Inquiry?

A Court of Inquiry (COI) is a court established under Section 200A of the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971 (AFDA).  Its purpose is to provide an officer in command with ‘an expeditious fact finding procedure so that a matter can be promptly investigated and if necessary, prompt, remedial action can be taken’.  The procedure of a COI is provided for in Part 11 of the AFDA.  A Court of Inquiry can be conducted into any matter that an Assembling Authority directs.  There are certain incidents where it is mandatory to conduct a COI.  A Court of Inquiry must occur when a service person dies or is seriously injured in the course of his or her duties, unless the death or injury occurred during armed conflict; or where an incident is investigated as a disciplinary matter.

Courts of inquiry have a greater status in law than command investigations and therefore offer certain protections which command investigations do not.

The officer in command of the relevant part of the Service or Joint Forces is normally the Assembling Authority.

A COI must consist of no less than two members, of whom at least one must be an officer who is the President and the other/s must be officers, warrant officers, or members of the NZDF Civil Staff of equivalent standing.

It is not the role of the Courts of Inquiry to determine guilt - that is a matter for the Courts, and in the NZDF, it is the Court Martial of NZ or a Summary trial.

Operation of a Court of Inquiry

The Assembling Authority prescribes terms of reference that the COI must address when collecting and recording evidence about the matter being examined. If required, the COI reports and comments on these matters. The Assembly Authority also comments on the report and any recommendations. The evidence collected and any report and comment by the COI is contained in the record of proceedings.

Release of Court of Inquiry Reports

A Court of Inquiry sits in private and records the evidence of every witness. If a COI is to achieve its purpose of determining the facts and carrying out prompt remedial action, total frankness is required of witnesses. This is particularly important in mitigating operational impact. COI are therefore afforded a large measure of confidentiality and this is recognised by statute. Section 200T of the Armed Forces Discipline Act 1971 prohibits release of the record of proceedings within the NZDF unless there is a service requirement or entitlement, and requires the approval of the Superior Commander of the Service before any release to personnel not subject to the AFDA.

Within this constraint, where a COI concerns a matter of high public interest the NZDF will assess the circumstances on a case by case basis, balancing the relevant factors to determine whether any redacted COI report or summary can be released.

Relevant factors will include:

  • High public interest
  • The rationale for maintaining confidentially
  • In the event of a fatality, the wishes of family representatives and the privacy of individuals
  • The maintenance of New Zealand national security and other relevant privileges

It is important to note that, under subsection (h)(iii) of section 2(1) of the Official Information Act (OIA), evidence given and submissions made to a Court of Inquiry do not constitute official information and are not therefore subject to release under the OIA.

In addition, the Ombudsman has ruled that it is legitimate to withhold material within scope of the terms of reference pending the outcome of the COI. While a COI is assembled, any information that is ‘held’ by the NZDF that is relevant to the COI’s Terms of Reference has the capacity to become evidence or submissions. This situation continues to apply until a COI completes its task.

External Legal Review

A new development is the establishment of a panel of independent external counsel, comprising three Queen’s Counsel, under the office of the Judge Advocate General. An External Legal Review will provide independent legal assurance of significant COI, on a case by case basis.

NZDF COI Training
This page was last reviewed on 12 August 2019.